Full Text: The Practice of the "One Country, Two Systems" Policy in the HKSAR
Updated: 2014-06-10 15:55
-Responsible for the defense of the HKSAR. The central leadership made the decision and authorized the formation of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Hong Kong Garrison in January 1996, and on December 30 the same year, the 23rd Session of the Eighth NPC Standing Committee adopted the Law of the People's Republic of China on Garrisoning the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. At midnight on July 1, 1997, troops of the PLA Hong Kong Garrison entered Hong Kong to take over the defense of the HKSAR. The Garrison's duties include guarding against and resisting aggression, ensuring the security of the HKSAR, performing defense services, managing military installations, and handling military affairs involving other countries in accordance with the law. The Garrison adheres to the law in performing its duties, and oversees military conduct in accordance with the law. It diligently fulfills its duties in defense, organizing sea and air patrols and carrying out search and rescue exercises in case of maritime or air emergencies, joint exercises of combined arms, and cross-district maneuvers, vigorously safeguarding China's sovereignty and territorial integrity. The Garrison also actively takes part in activities to promote the public good in Hong Kong, inviting local residents to visit the Garrison barracks and holding summer military camps for young students, in an effort to strengthen ties between the Garrison and the local community. All this has helped enhance the mutual understanding and trust between the Garrison and the people of Hong Kong, fully exemplifying the valor and good conduct of the PLA.
-Exercising power granted to the NPC Standing Committee by the Constitution of the PRC and the Basic Law of the HKSAR. First, the NPC Standing Committee keeps record of the laws drawn up by the legislature of the HKSAR for review. By the end of 2013, the HKSAR had reported a total of 570 local laws to the NPC Standing Committee for the record. Second, it adds or subtracts national laws applicable in the HKSAR as listed in Annex III of the Basic Law of the HKSAR. Currently, 12 national laws are listed in Annex III of the Basic Law of the HKSAR for implementation. Third, it makes new authorizations to the HKSAR. In 1996, the NPC Standing Committee empowered the HKSAR government to appoint its immigration department as the office to accept applications for nationality in the HKSAR and handle the applications in accordance with the Nationality Law and its interpretations. In 2006, the NPC Standing Committee authorized the HKSAR to run the Hong Kong section of the Shenzhen Bay Port in accordance with the laws of the HKSAR. Fourth, it makes interpretations regarding the Basic Law of the HKSAR. The NPC Standing Committee made interpretations of the related articles of the Basic Law in 1999, 2004, 2005 and 2011 on the following questions respectively: the right of abode in Hong Kong for permanent Hong Kong residents' children born outside Hong Kong and with Chinese nationality, the legal procedure for modifying the selection methods of the chief executive and the Legislative Council, the length of the term of a by-elected chief executive, and the principles of state immunity, and interpretations of relevant provisions in the Basic Law and its appendixes. Fifth, it decides on issues relating to the constitutional development in the HKSAR. The NPC Standing Committee made decisions in 2004 and 2007, respectively, on the selection method of the chief executive for 2007 and the Legislative Council for 2008, and the selection method of the chief executive, the Legislative Council and the general election for 2012. Sixth, it ratifies and keeps record of the amendments to the selection methods of the chief executive and Legislative Council of the HKSAR. In 2010, the NPC Standing Committee ratified the HKSAR's amendment to the selection method of the chief executive for 2012, agreeing to put on record the amendment to the selection method and voting procedure of the Legislative Council for 2012. Seventh, it keeps records of the appointment and removal of the judges of the Court of Final Appeal and the chief judge of the High Court of the HKSAR. In addition, according to the Basic Law of the HKSAR and relevant decisions of the NPC, the Basic Law Committee of the HKSAR of the NPC Standing Committee, established on July 1, 1997, when the Basic Law came into effect, is composed of members from the mainland and Hong Kong, and is responsible for providing opinions to the NPC Standing Committee on issues such as whether the laws drawn up by the HKSAR's legislature comply with the provisions of the Basic Law on the range of affairs responsible by the central government and the relationship between the central government and the HKSAR, on adding or subtracting the national laws applicable in Hong Kong as listed in Annex III and on the interpretation or revision of the Basic Law, and related issues.